9 Types of Family Planning | Birth Control Methods
Unprotected sex significantly increases the chances of pregnancy. Sex is a hormonal requirement of the human body, but pregnancy is not. Pregnancy is a beautiful phase, but only when one is ready. Unwanted pregnancy is related to a 20 – 22% increase in mental health issues. Not only does it affects mentally, but can also lead to health issues. This is why it is important to educate yourself about the different types of family planning.
Also, known as contraception or birth control methods, the types of family planning range from natural methods to surgical methods. Contraception methods are necessary for both males and females, to avoid pregnancy and other sex-related diseases, such as HIV/AIDs.
Adhering to the importance of education on contraception methods, here in this blog we will take you through nine types of family planning. These methods are effective and safe.
Barrier Methods For Family Planning
Barrier methods are not permanent types of family planning. They include cervical caps, condoms for both men and women, and vaginal sponges.
1- Cervical Caps
Contraceptive caps are made of silicone and fit snugly at the cervix, that’s why the name – cervical caps. These caps prevent the fertilisation of eggs and sperm. Cervical caps prevent the sperm from entering the uterus and thereby giving protection against unwanted pregnancy. Use the cervical caps along with spermicides (comes in the form of gel, foam, cream and pessaries., used to kill sperms.)
Condoms come for both males and females. Male condoms are to be rolled over the penis, while the female condom goes inside the vagina (open end outwards, and closed one inside). Condoms are one of the best types of family planning. Usually made of latex or polyurethane, condoms form a barrier between sperm and eggs. According to WHO reports, the effectiveness of condoms is – 2 out of 100 females with consistent use of male condoms, and 5 out of 100 women with female condoms. Plus, it is the only method that acts as protection against sex-borne diseases and unwanted pregnancies.
Natural Methods For Family Planning
On average, women go through 6 fertility days including ovulation day. This duration is ideal for those willing to have a child, while for others, there are natural types of family planning methods that pinpoint the time of fertility. This information can be later used to avoid pregnancy.
1- Rhythm Method
Believed to be one of the oldest types of family planning methods, it is based on the menstruation calendar. Usually, the menstruation cycle goes on for 28-30 days, and ovulation happens on the 14th day since the cycle starts. Thus you have the highest fertility on the 12th, 13th, and 14th day. So, to use this method, one should avoid having unprotected sex between 8 to 19 days of the mensuration cycle. You can make a chart for your cycle and keep track of the same. This method is only effective for women with regular period cycles.
2- Ovulation Method
The ovulation method, also known as the cervical mucus method, is one of the predictive types of family planning. In the method, you have to track the mucus made by the cervix. When you are ovulating, the mucus is wet, clear, stretchy, and appears to be like raw egg white. Make a chart of the mucus discretion to avoid having sex around fertility and ovulation days.
Surgical methods For Family Planning
These are considered the permanent types of family planning. There are only 0.1 women per 100 with a chance to get pregnant after vasectomy or female sterilisation.
Vasectomy is a surgical contraceptive method for males. The surgery usually takes about 15 – 20 minutes and is performed under local anaesthesia. Also known as male sterilisation, in this method, the tubes carrying sperm to the male testicles are cut, blocked or sealed. With a 99% effective rate, vasectomy prevents sperm from entering the seminal fluid, making it one of the best types of family planning. The surgery itself is painless and quick, and once done, who won’t have to worry about contraception, ever again?
2- Female Sterilisation
Similar to male sterilisation or vasectomy, female sterilisation blocks the fallopian tubes. These tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus and when blocked, they prevent the sperm from reaching the egg. Depending upon the method used for sterilisation, you just have to use protection or contraception till a week after surgery or till your next period. Female sterilisation has a 99% effectiveness rate, plus, it doesn’t cause any nuance in your sex life or period cycle.
IUD, intrauterine device – is a device made of copper or plastic with a low dosage of progestin. For this method, you first have to go through a cervix examination, Once the reports are approved by your doctor, you can opt for IUD or better referred to as one of the best types of family planning. It is placed inside your uterus by a trained professional. Once it is inserted, you won’t have to worry about contraception. IUD can be used for three to ten years.
Hormonal Methods For Family Planning
Hormonal methods use your hormones to avoid pregnancy. These types of family planning methods need a prescription from your doctor, and will either contain only one or both progestin and estrogen.
1- Birth Control Pills
These pills are to be taken only after a professional prescribes them. Birth control pills can either have both estrogen and progestin, or only progestin. They prevent ovulation and are one of the safest and best types of family planning. You have to take the same pill at the same time, every day. While they are pretty effective when taken exactly as prescribed, birth control pills can cause breast tenderness and nausea, at times.
2- Vaginal Rings
It is understandable from its name that this method is for females. Vaginal rings are to be used for a period of 21 days, then with a week’s break, you have to insert them again. These rings are small and made of soft plastic. Once it is placed in your vagina, it will release oestrogen and progestogen and make it difficult for the sperm to reach the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy.
We hope that this blog helps you learn about the different types of family planning and their effectiveness. All of the above-mentioned methods are proven effective by professionals, Make sure to keep your gynecologist in the loop while taking these measures to avoid any side effects.